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These recent discoveries are here summarized with a special focus on their potential involvement in atherosclerosis. Furthermore, since increasing evidence points to significant cross-talk between the eCBome and the gut microbiome and the gut microbiome and atherosclerosis, we explore the possibility that a gut microbiome — eCBome axis has potential implications in atherosclerosis. These disorders include myocardial infarction, hypertension, atherosclerosis, arrhythmias, and metabolic disorders. The aim of this review is to cover the main actions of cannabinoids on the cardiovascular system by examining the most recent advances in this field and major literature reviews.
It is well recognized that the actions of cannabinoids are mediated by either cannabinoid 1 or cannabinoid 2 receptors CB 2 Rs. Endocannabinoids produce a triphasic response on blood pressure, while synthetic cannabinoids show a tissue-specific and species-specific response.
Blocking cannabinoid 1 receptors have been shown to be effective against cardiometabolic disorders, although this should be done peripherally. Blocking CB 2 Rs may be a useful way to treat atherosclerosis by affecting immune cells. The activation of CB 2 Rs was reported to be useful in animal studies of myocardial infarction and cardiac arrhythmia.
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Although cannabinoids show promising effects in animal models, this does not always translate into human studies, and therefore, extensive clinical studies are needed to truly establish their utility in treating cardiovascular disease. Inflammatory processes have outstanding role in coronary artery disease CAD etiology and other atherosclerosis manifestations.
Recently attentions have been increased about gut microbiota in many fields of medicine especially in inflammatory diseases like atherosclerosis. Ineffectiveness in gut barrier functions and subsequent metabolic endotoxemia caused by rise in plasma lipopolysaccharide levels is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation i. Furthermore, the role of trimethylamine-N-oxide TMAO , a gut bacterial metabolite has been suggested in atherosclerosis development.
On the other hand, the effectiveness of gut microbiota modulation that results in TMAO reduction has been investigated.
New approaches and challenges to targeting the endocannabinoid system
Moreover, considerable evidence supports a role for the endocannabinoid system ECS in atherosclerosis pathology which affects gut microbiota, but their effects on atherosclerosis are controversial. Therefore, we presented some evidence about the relationship between gut microbiota and ECS in atherosclerosis. Even though there are many questions which have been unanswered, studies demonstrated that mucosal barrier function disruption and subsequent gut microbiota-derived endotoxemia could contribute to cardiometabolic diseases pathogenesis.
NOOK Book. The Endocannabinoidome: The World of Endocannabinoids and Related Mediators is dedicated to the latest research and studies on endocannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors to illustrate their important role in the discovery of new, endocannabinoid-related, lipid mediators.
Atherosclerosis | dersoudero.tk
Written by leading experts across different disciplines, this book focuses on the biochemical and anlayticial aspects of novel lipid signals, their pharmacological activities and their potential utilization for the development of new and effective therapeutic strategies. The first book of its kind, The Endocannabinoidome is a meaningful reference for all those involved in experimental efforts to further the development of this field.
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USD Sign in to Purchase Instantly. Explore Now. Buy As Gift. Overview The Endocannabinoidome: The World of Endocannabinoids and Related Mediators is dedicated to the latest research and studies on endocannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors to illustrate their important role in the discovery of new, endocannabinoid-related, lipid mediators.
https://kopeapatharet.tk Explores the novel and exciting aspects of several endocannabinoid-like molecules for which researchers are still seeking a function Discusses the novel metabolic pathways for endocannabinoids in order to explain the failure of some clinical trials with inhibitors of more conventional metabolic pathways Incorporates pharmacology, biochemistry and potential clinical applications to provide researchers with a complete look at endocannabinoids.
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