Experiences in Biochemical Perception


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Each person will have different experiences, e ven people with the same diagnosis. Recovery, including meaningful roles in social life, school and work, is possible, especially when you start treatment early and play a strong role in your own recovery process. Genetics, environment and lifestyle influence whether someone develops a mental health condition. A stressful job or home life makes some people more susceptible, as do traumatic life events like being the victim of a crime. Biochemical processes and circuits and basic brain structure may play a role, too. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD is a developmental disorder where there are significant problems with attention, hyperactivity or acting impulsively.

Everyone experiences anxiety sometimes, but when it becomes overwhelming and repeatedly impacts a person's life, it may be an anxiety disorder. Autism spectrum disorder ASD is a developmental disorder that makes it difficult to socialize and communicate with others. Borderline personality disorder BPD is characterized by severe, unstable mood swings, impulsivity and instability, poor self-image and stormy relationships.

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Dissociative disorders are spectrum of disorders that affect a person's memory and self-perception. When you become so preoccupied with food and weight issues that you find it hard to focus on other aspects of your life, it may be a sign of an eating disorder.

Experiences in Biochemical Perception - Google Libros

Not registered? Sign up. Publications Pages Publications Pages. Search my Subject Specializations: Select Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Perceptual Experience Tamar Szabo Gendler and John Hawthorne Abstract The topic of perceptual experience lies at the center of a number of important debates in epistemology, the philosophy of mind, and the psychology of perception.

More The topic of perceptual experience lies at the center of a number of important debates in epistemology, the philosophy of mind, and the psychology of perception. Authors Affiliations are at time of print publication. Print Save Cite Email Share. Show Summary Details. Subscriber Login Email Address.

Library Card. Again, this could be tested more broadly through new expert practitioner interviews. Retrospective and experimental approaches to analytical autoethnography produce different insights. Since the incidents generating highest fear involved high perceived risk, and I have not experienced such incidents deliberately, they are only available for retrospective analysis. Experimental autoethnographic approaches with an external-cue trigger Buckley, a , in contrast, involve greater focus on thrill, at much lower intensities of risk and fear.

This approach provides more reliable and detailed data on changes between emotions over very short time-scales. In addition, the experimental approach can provide successive sets of increasingly focussed observations.


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It is difficult for an individual to recall, or describe in a later interview, exactly what sequence of emotions they experienced during a move or manoeuver which is at once difficult, dangerous, exciting, but frightening. In recollection, the various emotions may seem to have been mixed or confused, or to have followed each other at such short timescales that one cannot be sure of the order.

It is also difficult for an observer to detect such a sequence, because it occurs too rapidly and may be revealed only weakly through facial expressions, especially if the observer cannot get very close to the person undergoing the experience. By repeating and remembering such experiences oneself, however, and deliberately paying attention to the emotions involved, it is possible to distinguish such a sequence.

This is the key benefit of experimental analytical autoethnography in the analysis of emotions Buckley, a. Fear and thrill are both extensively studied. The approaches used here add: a distinction between pre-event fear and in-the-moment fear; a distinction between empowering fear and paralyzing panic; and a sawtooth relationship between fear and thrill, with upper and lower thresholds which differ between individuals.

Analytical autoethnography, both retrospective and experimental, shows that during high-risk, high-skill activities, fear, and thrill may occur jointly or succeed each other at very short timescales, and that there are multiple different pathways or trajectories, depending on timing, physical circumstances, and perceived control.

What Happens in the Brain When We Feel Fear

No other approach has revealed this level of detail. From the practical perspective, the sequence and drivers of emotions during outdoor adventure recreation are especially valuable if they can be used to analyze and improve emotional control during emergency services and military combat, where it is a great deal more difficult to conduct research. The expert ethnography, in particular, indicates that through practice, one can learn to avoid panic so as to think and act rapidly, decisively, and appropriately under high risk.

It appears, though this requires further testing, that this approach only succeeds if the danger and fear are real cf. Morreall, Currently, emergency services and military personnel achieve this by practicing their skills during high-risk events in their actual professions, so-called combat hardening Fenz and Epstein, ; Friedland and Keinan, ; Taverniers et al.

To reduce injury and mortality, military and emergency services organizations use training approaches which simulate combat or emergencies Cohn et al. These, however, generally do not involve real fear. The results presented here suggest that it would be more effective to combine such training with practice in overcoming real fear, e. Many such organizations do engage in adventure recreation, but not yet for this purpose.

From a research perspective, three significant new avenues arise from the results reported here.

The first is that they may help to elucidate how humans perceive the passage of time Arstila, ; Wittmann, ; Buckley, ; Li and Yuen, The second is that, especially if it could be coupled with biochemical, neurological and musculoskeletal observations, analytical autoethnography could help to elucidate how we learn physical skills which require very fine coordination of observation and control. I look forward to the day when surf and kite helmets can be fitted with EEGs. Meanwhile, perhaps such a helmet could be constructed for use while snowboarding or bungy jumping.

The third question is: what is the evolutionary origin of thrill? Fear in the face of danger has clear ecological and evolutionary advantages Nesse and Ellsworth, ; Adolphs, ; de Valk et al. But what is gained through thrill? Thrill drives individuals to perform actions that involve risk and fear.

Why should this provide an evolutionary advantage? Is it, perhaps, a mechanism to induce juvenile humans, and perhaps other animal species, to practice the skills they need to survive, thrive, and reproduce in adult life? Humans experience both fear and thrill from a young age Sandseter, It appears that as skill increases, the degree of risk and fear needed to generate the same level of thrill also increases Buckley, It also appears that when thrill is coupled with the successful performance of a skilled activity under risk, generating what Buckley referred to as rush, this becomes addictive.

These would both be consistent with a strong role in learning. Similarly, it seems that when circumstances require maximum attention and concentration because of high risk, neither fear nor thrill nor any other emotion is experienced at that moment. This is not shock, because it is accompanied either by very rapid mental processing, or complete calm.

If emotions have evolved to increase individual survival, why would they disappear at moments of highest risk? Could it be, perhaps, that biochemical aspects of emotion are valuable in long-term behavioral conditioning, but that they interfere with short-term neurological processing, so that when high-speed logical thought is critical for survival, emotions are temporarily shut down? This might be analogous to the recently described mechanism showing interferences between memory and stress Sekine et al.

More generally, perhaps high-risk adventure activities could contribute to understanding of links between emotion and cognition Okon-Singer et al. The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Ackerl, K. The scent of fear.


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    Arnould, E. River magic: extraordinary experience and the extended service encounter. Arstila, V. Time slows down during accidents. Avila, I. Motivational salience signal in the basal forebrain is coupled with faster and more precise decision speed. PLoS Biol. Barbieri, C. Surf travel behavior and destination preferences: an application of the Serious Leisure Inventory and Measure.

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