Green Composites: Properties, Design and Life Cycle Assessment

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Download Publication:. Research Areas:. Research Project:. Publication Type:. Full Citation:. Li, Victor C. In addition, due to develop solutions that have multiple benefits. Also, expert knowledge becomes of-life disposal methods vary from one choice of fundamentally important to define correct indices material to another.

Schematic of material selection in an integrated design process mization problem where the density,! Composite design and material selection low while the elastic modulus, E, should be high with environmental considerations: enough to bear the load without exceeding a given A review maximum allowable deflection. In compar- design objectives. If during decision-making the composite materials in its aircraft for more mechanical design group in the project uses the specific examples of current applications of fiber- density and stiffness as individual material proper- reinforced composites in the aircraft industry, see ties and not as a ratio as defined above , less accu- the study [2].

Similarly, composite materials have rate or not application-specific results would be played key roles in reducing the magnetic, acoustic, obtained.

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Research directions in relation to current when compared to more traditional structural mate- efforts in improving the recycling techniques of rials such as aluminum [4]. In air transport, emis- composites are also addressed Section 3. Next, an sions can be more environmentally damaging than illustrative case study is presented in Section 4 on those at ground level due to increased interaction of gear material selection with an emphasis on the structures with gases at high altitudes.

Scelsi et al. This is despite the study.

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Concluding remarks are included in Section 5. The IPN-like soy protein- develop more environmentally friendly composites based resin was further reinforced using nano-clay such as natural fiber-reinforced polymers. Different fibers includ- Holbery and Houston [5] describe applications of ing high strength liquid crystalline cellulose, aramid natural-fiber-reinforced polymer composites in and E-glass fibers in the modified resin were used automotive components.

Their work suggested that and the ensuing tensile and flexural strengths of natural fibers in composites yield high quality com- composites were tested.

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It was demonstrated that posite products while minimizing environmental the green fiber alternative was very competent. Namely, fibers such as flax, hemp, and Although the soy-based materials and cellulose kenaf were tested and compared to more traditional were fully biodegradable, challenges such as con- composites such as glass fibers to demonstrate the sistent quality and water resistance remained yet to competence of the natural counterparts. Nonetheless, be overcome for full applications of green compos- it was concluded that there still exist challenges to ites.

Mechanical properties and biodegrad- biere-Nicollier et al.

Green Composites

They scrutinized a set of GF. The analysis considered the entire life cycle composite laminates composed of regenerated cel- of the two candidate materials including energy use, lulose lyocell fabric and three types of biodegrad- efficiency of transportation, and disposal waste able polyesters [poly 3-hydroxybutyrate-co phase. It was con- pression molding and examined for the effect of cluded that CR fiber could be an excellent alterna- natural fiber content on their tensile moduli and tive given that its lifetime is greater than the strengths, as well as Izod impact resistance.

In view of MCDM, a accounted for the entire life cycle of the pavements, clear indication of these results is that for each cho- from obtaining the material resources to disposal.

Life Cycle Assessment as part of Strategic Sustainability for Product Design

The study divided Netravali et al. However, at the disposal stage, the envi- ites FRCs has been extensively discussed by Umair ronmental load of the steel reinforced pavement, as [10]. After a review of the history of FRCs and a can be seen in Table 2, was found to be lower than general classification of their constituents, a num- that of FRP reinforced pavements i. Comparison of emissions of pollutants into air for production, and marine industries.

Subsequently, a glass fiber and China reed pallets [8] possible method to analyze the life cycle of FRCs Substance Unit GF pallet CR pallet was developed and exemplified for lightweight Maleic anhydride [mg]! CO [g] Considering the Dimethenamide [mg]! The pro- Hg [mg] 1. N2O [g] 1. P [mg] 5. Current textile production methods, for most Zn [mg] part, cause resource depletion and excessive water consumption, as well as pollution through toxic Table 2. Comparison of environmental impact data for three ship superstructures with different waste disposal scenarios [10] Balsa core sandwich super structure PVC sandwich foam super structure Steel super structure Impact categories Landfill Incineration Recycle Landfill Incineration Recycle Recycle Global warming in kg CO2 eq.

The study found that environmental Table 4. Their method utilized a multi-objec- tive analysis technique to show the application of tion with energy recovery INC , and disposal to the approach for material selection of a car brake landfill LND. Subsequently, a grey coefficient was disk. The considered decision parameters were cost, calculated and assigned to each combination of environmental impact, and mechanical perform- material-disposal options e.

The candidate materials were grey cast iron The coefficients scores made it possible for the BS and F3K20S Duralcan aluminum matrix decision-maker to rank the candidates as shown in composite. Limiting factors such as mechanical Table 4. The higher the coefficients, the better the design thresholds, geometry constraints, and feasi- option in relation to the EOL treatment.

Next to formulating moulded wood-fiber-reinforced polypropylene com- environmental impact indices for the problem, an posite sheets with that of pure polypropylene is dis- original step was taken in their work to incorporate cussed by Xu et al.

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In contrast, for experiments in the early stages of decision-making. It definition of performance indices as described in was concluded that when material service density is Section 1. Authors also discussed that environmen- relational solution method was developed by Chan tal loads of natural fiber reinforced composites can and Tong [13] to choose the best materials for a decrease with sufficient evidence when the use phase vacuum cleaner dustbin. The candidate materials of the design is focused on.

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  • In other words, it is of were analyzed with respect to their cost, impact on utmost importance for material designers to note the environment and human health, and disposal that the use of natural fibers in composite materials methods. It is the light density of weighting method was adapted. Three types of natural fiber reinforced polymer products that materials were nominated: aluminum alloy AL , makes them very attractive alternatives regarding acrylonitrile butadiene styrene ABS and polyure- their environmental impact during the use stage.

    If thane PU. The energy regain processing phases compared to conventional virgin obtained during recycling phase of green compos- thermoplastics [20]. The introductory chapters look at why we should consider green composites, their design and life cycle assessment. The properties of natural fibre sources such as cellulose and wood are then discussed. Chapter 6 examines recyclable synthetic fibre-thermoplastic composites as an alternative solution and polymers derived from natural sources are covered in Chapter 7.

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    The factors that influence the properties of these natural composites and natural fibre thermoplastic composites are detailed in Chapters 8 and 9. The final four chapters consider clean processing, applications, recycling, degradation and reprocessing.

    1st Edition

    Green composites is an essential guide for agricultural crop producers, government agricultural departments, automotive companies, composite producers and material scientists all dedicated to the promotion and practice of eco-friendly materials and production methods. Reviews fibre reinforced polymer composite production Explains how environmental footprints can be diminished at every stage of the life-cycle.

    Green Composites: Properties, Design and Life Cycle Assessment Green Composites: Properties, Design and Life Cycle Assessment
    Green Composites: Properties, Design and Life Cycle Assessment Green Composites: Properties, Design and Life Cycle Assessment
    Green Composites: Properties, Design and Life Cycle Assessment Green Composites: Properties, Design and Life Cycle Assessment
    Green Composites: Properties, Design and Life Cycle Assessment Green Composites: Properties, Design and Life Cycle Assessment
    Green Composites: Properties, Design and Life Cycle Assessment Green Composites: Properties, Design and Life Cycle Assessment
    Green Composites: Properties, Design and Life Cycle Assessment Green Composites: Properties, Design and Life Cycle Assessment

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