Individual chapters explore topics such as nanoparticle biosynthesis, engineered nanomaterials, the use of nanoclays for remediation of polluted sites, nanomaterials in water desalination, their effect on seed germination, plant growth, and nutrient transformations in soil, as well as the use of earthworms as bioremediating agents for nanoparticles.
It is a valuable resource for researchers in academia and industry working in the field of agriculture, crop protection, plant sciences, applied microbiology, soil biology and environmental sciences. Read more Read less.
Amazon Global Store US International products have separate terms, are sold from abroad and may differ from local products, including fit, age ratings, and language of product, labeling or instructions. Manufacturer warranty may not apply Learn more about Amazon Global Store. From the Back Cover This book provides in-depth reviews of the effects of nanoparticles on the soil environment, their interactions with plants and also their potential applications as nanofertilizers and pesticides.
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Graphite is made of millions of layers of graphene. In Geim and Novoselov extracted graphene from graphite using Scotch tape. They received the Nobel Prize for Physics for their investigations on graphene. Graphene is presently considered as a wonder material with many superlatives to its name. Since it is one atom thick, it is the thinnest material in use and quite strong and stiff. Graphene electrical conductivity is reported to be six orders higher than copper and its thermal conductivity is also quite high.
It is impermeable to gases and reconciles such conflicting qualities as brittleness and ductility. Electron transport in graphene is described by a Dirac-like equation, which allows the investigation of relativistic quantum phenomena in a bench-top experiment. Presently there are many projects worldwide investigating the potential of graphene for a variety of applications. Graphene research is expanding quite fast and several publications appear in the literature about graphene every day which makes it a real struggle to keep up with the developments.
It is expected that graphene will continue to stand out as a truly unique molecular building block MBB in the field of nanotechnology. Research on various properties of graphene is in progress, and it may bring up new phenomena Morris and Iniewski, Metallic and oxide molecular building blocks MBBs of nanotechnology: Michael Faraday is credited for the first person who recognized the existence of metallic nanoparticles MNPs , especially gold nanoparticles, in solution in Among all MNPs gold nanoparticles and silver nanoparticles have found more extensive and interesting applications in the fields of agriculture, energy and medicine Hatami and Ghorbanpour, ; Ghorbanpour and Hatami, ; Mansoori, et al.
Oxides generally possess a vast number of structural geometries with varied electronic structure that can exhibit metallic, semiconductor or insulator character. ONPs can exhibit unique physical and chemical properties due to their limited size and a high density of corner or edge surface sites. For example, during the past two decades, research and development in the area of synthesis and applications of different nanostructured titanium dioxide have become tremendous Aghdam, et al. TiO2 nanomaterials can assume the forms of nanoparticles, nanorods, nanowires, nanosheets, nanofibers, and nanotubes.
Many applications of TiO2 nanomaterials are closely related to their optical properties. Examples of applications of nanostructured titanium dioxide include in dye-sensitized solar cells, hydrogen production and storage, sensors, rechargeable batteries, electrocatalysis, self-cleaning and antibacterial surfaces, cancer treatment, photocatalytic removal of various pollutants, TiO2-based nanoclays.
Biological molecular building blocks MBBs of nanotechnology: At the same time that physical scientists and engineers have been experimenting with organic and inorganic nanostructures as mentioned above, bio- and medical-scientists and -engineers have been making their own advances with other nanoscale structures known as biological molecular building blocks MBBs like cyclodextrins, liposomes, monoclonal antibodies, etc. Mansoori, ; Mansoori, et al. Cyclodextrins, as shown in Figure 5, are cyclic oligosaccharides. Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides. Their shape is like a truncated cone and they have a relatively hydrophobic interior.
They have the ability to form inclusion complexes with a wide range of substrates in aqueous solution. This property has led to their application for encapsulation of drugs in drug delivery Mansoori, This property has led to their application for encapsulation of drugs in drug delivery. Liposomes, which are also in nanoscale size range as shown in Figure 6, self-assemble based on hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties and they encapsulate drugs inside. Figure 6: Cross section of a liposome composed of the phospholipid DSPC Distearoyl phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol — A spherical bilayer which is quite similar to a micelle.
Remediation of Environmental Pollutants Using Nanoclays. In Nanoscience and Plant–Soil Systems
It is made of a bilayer with an internal aqueous compartment. Liposomes vesicles can be used as drug carriers and loaded with a great variety of molecules, such as small drug molecules, proteins, nucleotides and even plasmids Mansoori, Many commercially available anticancer drugs are cyclodextrins or liposome loaded with or less nanometer in diameter. A monoclonal derived from a single clone antibody molecule consists of four protein chains, two heavy and two light, which are folded to form a Y-shaped structure see Figure 7.
Figure 7: Antibody and its structure Mansoori, It is about ten nanometers in diameter. This small size is important, for example, to ensure that intravenously administered these particles can penetrate small capillaries and reach cells in tissues where they are needed for treatment. Conclusions and discussion: The atomic-scale and cutting-edge fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology, which are considered to lead us to the next industrial revolution are likely to have a revolutionary impact on the way things will be done, designed and manufactured in the future.
Results of research and developments in these fields are entering into all aspects of our lives including, but not limited to, aerospace, agriculture, defense, energy, environment, materials, manufacturing, medicine, etc. It is truly an atomic and molecular approach for building biologically, chemically and physically stable structures one atom or one molecule at a time.
We have known for many years that several existing technologies depend crucially on processes that take place on the nanoscale. Adsorption, lithography, ion-exchange, catalysis, drug design, plastics and composites are some examples of such technologies. The "nano" aspect of these technologies was not known and, for most part, they were initiated accidentally by mere luck. They were further developed using tedious trial-and-error laboratory techniques due to the limited ability of the times to probe and control matter on nanoscale.
The above-mentioned technologies, and more, stand to be improved vastly as the methods of nanoscience and nanotechnology develop. Such methods include the possibility to control the arrangement of atoms inside a particular molecule and, as a result, the ability to organize and control matter simultaneously on several length scales.
The developing concepts of nanoscience and nanotechnology seem pervasive and broad.
follow link It is expected to influence every area of science and technology, in ways that are clearly unpredictable. Advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology will also help solve other technology and science problems. For example, we have realized the benefits that nanostructuring can bring to Mansoori, : a. Wear-resistant tires made by combining nanoscale particles of inorganic clays with polymers as well as other nanoparticle reinforced materials.
Greatly improved printing brought about by nanoscale particles that have the best properties of both dyes and pigments as well as advanced ink jet systems. Vastly improved new generation of lasers, magnetic disk heads, nanolayers with selective optical barriers and systems on a chip made by controlling layer thickness to better than a nanometer. Design of advanced chemical and biosensors. Nanoparticles to be used in medicine with vastly advanced drug delivery and drug targeting capabilities.
Chemical-mechanical polishing with nanoparticle slurries, hard coatings and high hardness cutting tools.
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Methods of nanotechnology could provide a new dimension to the control and improvement of living organisms. Photo-lithographic patterning of matter on the micro scale has led to the revolution in microelectronics over the past few decades. With nanotechnology, it is becoming possible to control matter on every important length scale, enabling tremendous new power in materials design.
Biotechnology is being influenced by research in nanoscience and nanotechnology greatly. It is anticipated that, for example, this will revolutionize healthcare to produce ingestible systems that will be harmlessly flushed from the body if the patient is healthy but will notify a physician of the type and location of diseased cells and organs if there are problems. Micro and macro systems constructed of nanoscale components are expected to have entirely new properties that have never before been identified in nature.
As a result, by altering and design of the structure of materials in the nanoscale range we would be able to systematically and appreciably modify or change selected properties of matter at macro and micro scales. This would include, for example, production of polymers or composites with most desirable properties which nature and existing technologies are incapable of producing.
Nanoscale traps will be constructed that will be able to remove pollutants from the environment and deactivate chemical warfare agents. Computers with the capabilities of current workstations will be the size of a grain of sand and will be able to operate for decades with the equivalent of a single wristwatch battery. There are many more observations in the areas of agricultural applications Ghorbanpour, et al.
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Many large organic molecules are known to forming organic nanostructures of various shapes as shown in Figures 3 and 8 the driving force of which is the intermolecular interaction energies between such macromolecules Mansoori, ; Priyanto, et al. Figure 8: Organic nanostructure self-assemblies of various shapes Mansoori, ; Priyanto, et al. The primary attraction of organic nanostructures is their potential for molding, coating, and the extreme flexibility that they have in being tailored to meet the needs of a particular application.
The organic nanostructures materials are easily integrated with conventional inorganic nanostructures like semiconductor devices , thereby providing additional functionality to existing photonic circuits and components. Some progress has been made in understanding the formation and behavior of organic nanostructures that might be formed to serve as elements of nanomaterials and also on synthetic strategies for creating such structures Mansoori, ; Priyanto, et al.
The ultimate goal is to achieve a better understanding of the fundamental molecular processes and properties of these nanostructures which are dominated by grain boundaries and interfaces. In understanding the behavior and the properties of these nanostructures the potential for technological applications will be considered.
Many other unpredictable advances resulting from nanotechnology are inevitable. Thus, the future prospects for nanotechnology actually represent a revolutionary super-cutting-edge field that is expected to eventually become the foundation for such currently disparate areas as, and many others that we cannot even foresee at this time. It is then no wonder that it is considered to lead the humanity to the next industrial revolution. References Aghdam MTB, Mohammadi H, Ghorbanpour M Effects of nanoparticulate anatase titanium dioxide on physiological and biochemical performance of Linum usitatissimum Linaceae under well-watered and drought.
Brazilian J Botany, Phys Rev Let 56 9 : Scientific American Science : Ebrahimi N, Mansoori GA Reliability for drug targeting in cancer treatment through nanotechnology.
Proceedings of the First Conference on Nanotechnology - The next industrial revolution, 2, , March. Feynman RP There's plenty of room at the bottom - An invitation to enter a new field of physics. Feynman RP Infinitesimal machinery. Ghorbanpour M Major essential oil constituents, total phenolics and flavonoids content and antioxidant activity of Salvia officinalis plant in response to nano-titanium dioxide.
Indian J Plant Physiology 20 3 : Ghorbanpour M, Hadian J Multi-walled carbon nanotubes stimulate callus induction, secondary metabolites biosynthesis and antioxidant capacity in medicinal plant. Carbon — Ghorbanpour M, Hatami M Changes in growth, antioxidant defense system and major essential oils constituents of Pelargonium graveolens plant exposed to nano-scale silver and thidiazuron. Ind J Plant Physiol 20 2 — Acta Agriculturae Slovenica 1 : Hatami M, Ghorbanpour M Defense enzyme activities and biochemical variations of Pelargonium zonale in response to nanosilver application and dark storage.
Turk J Biol Hatami M, Ghorbanpour M, Salehiarjomand H Nano-anatase TiO2 modulates the germination behavior and seedling vigority of some commercially important medicinal and aromatic plants. J Biological Env Sci 8 22 : Hill TL A different approach to nanothermodynamics. Nano Letters 1 5 : Iijima S Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon. Nature Iijima S, Ichihashi T Single-shell carbon nanotubes of 1-nm diameter. Mansoori GA Organic nanostructures and their phase transitions.
Proceedings of the first Conference on Nanotechnology - The next industrial revolution, 2, Mansoori GA Principles of Nanotechnology. Cancers 2 4 : Mansoori GA, et al. Topics in Applied Physics , Springer.
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